a7f4a3f590493a1e451dd952a488fd7c.gif 济南大学英语专业考试.doc



9.90 积分

1. What are composites? Characteristics, types复合材料是什么?特点、类型(p98)Composites: composites are hybrid混合的 creations made of two or more materials that maintain their identities(身份) when combined. They are combinations of materials assembled(组合的) together to obtain properties superior to those of their single constituent characteristics. They are expensive compete with metal and polymers(高分子) because the manufacturing(制造) of composites involves many steps. It’s difficult to recycle.Characteristics:(1) The properties of one constituent(成分) enhance the deficient(不足) properties of the other.(2) Usually, a given property of a composite lies between the values for each constituent.(3) Sometimes, the property of a composite is clearly superior to those of either of the constituents.(4) Because manufacturing of composites involves many steps and is labour intensive(劳动密集型产业), composites may be too expensive to compete with metals and polymers,(5) Composites are usually difficult to recycle.Types(P96):Composites are classified according to the nature of their matrix: metal, ceramic(陶瓷), polymer composite, often designated(指定的) MMCs金属基复合材料, CMCs陶瓷基复合材料, PMCs聚合物基复合材料2. classification of materials材料分类?Materials:Natural、Inorganic Non-Metallic Materials, Ceramics、Organic Materials( Polymers, blends混纺)、Metals(Alloys)、Semiconductors、Composites、Biomaterials(生物材料)According to their properties, materials can be broadly classi?ed into the following groups:Structural materials、Functional materials、Smart materials(智能材料)Scale(值范围)of Materials:1. Nanoscale, sizes of about 1 to 100 nanometers;2. Microscale, relevant for micro-devices and microsystems having sizes of typically 1 to 1000 micrometers(微米);3. Macroscale materials (宏观材料)have the dimensions of all customary products, devices and plants, ranging from the millimeter(毫米) to the kilometer scale。3. Physical properties (names)物理性质(名称)The mechanical properties(机械性质) of material: bend test(弯曲试验): ductility(延展性), elasticity(弹性), brittleness(脆性). Tensile test(抗拉试验): yield strength(屈服强度), tensile strength(抗张强度). Hardness test(硬度试验): hardness. Impact test(冲击试验): toughness(韧性) under shock(冲击). Fatigue test疲劳试验: fatigue behavior. Stiffness(硬度); Creep test蠕变试验: creep. Thermal properties: thermal conductivity(热导率), specific heat capacity(比热容); Optical properties(光学): reflection(反射) refraction(折射) dispersion(散射); Electrical properties(电学性质): conductivity(导电性), resistivity(电阻率), particle-wave duality of light; Magnetic properties: perneabolity, susceptibility(敏感), magnetic induction, 4. How to get the stress-strain curve? What are the parameters can we get from this curve? What are the parameters can we get from this curve?如何获得应力-应变曲线?我们从这个曲线中得到了什么参数?The result of a tensile test is commonly displayed in a stress–strain diagram.Y: stress, tensile stress. X: strain. Under tensile stress, the rod becomes longer in the direction of the applied force (and eventually narrower perpendicular to that axis), the change in longitudinal dimensi。省略部分。is loop for a ferroelectric铁电 material in an electric field. Specifically, if a ferroelectric is exposed to a label electric field, e, its permanent dipoles become increasingly aligned排列 with the external field direction until eventually all dipoles are parallel to e and saturation饱和 of the polarization极化, Ps, has been achieved, as depicted in Figure 11.29. Once the external field has been withdrawn, a remanent剩余的 polarization, Pr, remains which can only be removed by inverting反转 the electric field until a coercive field, ec, has been reached (Figure 11.29). By further increasing the reverse相反的 electric field, parallel orientation方向 of the dipoles in the opposite direction is achieved. Finally, when reversing the field once more, a complete hysteresis loop is obtained, as depicted in Figure 11.29.absorbance吸光率;amorphous非晶态的;antireflection coatings抗反射膜atomic bonding原子键;bend test弯曲试验;black-body radiation黑体辐射;Bohr magneton玻尔磁子;Breakage破损;brittle materials脆性材料;Capacitance电容;cation–cation repulsions阳离子之间的排斥;coercive field矫顽磁场;coefficient of linear expansion线膨胀系数;coherent scattering相干散射;Composites复合;Composition成分;Constituents组分;Contract合同;constant volume等容;Consecutive Collisions连续碰撞;Creep蠕变;crystalline 晶体的;current density电流密度damping constant阻尼常数;Deform畸形的;Diamagnetic反磁性的;domain wall磁畴壁;donor levels施主能级;dopant掺杂剂;Dispersion色散;Ductility延展性;eddy current涡电流;elastic waves弹性波;elastic range弹性范围;electromagnetic wave 电磁波;Elongation延伸率;energy band能带energy barrier能垒Extrinsic Semiconductor非本征半导体;Expansion膨胀,扩展 Fatigue疲劳;Fermi energy费米能量;Ferromagnetics铁磁体的;Ferrite铁氧体;Fracture断口;fracure toughness断裂韧度functional materials功能材料Heat conduction热传导heat flux热通量;heat transfer传热;hysteresis loop磁滞回线;Index of refraction折射率;Indentation压痕;Insulator绝缘物;Interband Transition带间跃迁inverse spinel structure反尖晶石结构Lasers激光;lattice defect晶格缺陷;Light dense medium光密介质;light-emitting diodes发光二极管;luminescence.冷光Magnetism磁学magnetic induction磁感应magnetic moment磁矩;Matrix基体;Magnitude数量级;modulus of elasticity弹性模量;Microstructure显微组织orbiting valence electrons价电子轨道Opaque不透明体;Oscillators振荡器Paramagnetism顺磁性;particle-wave duality波粒二象性;permanent magnet永磁体;Performance性能;Phonon声子;Photon光子;plastic deformation塑性变形;Poisson ratio泊松比;potential energy势能;positive charge carriers正电荷载流子;polarization极化;processing处理;qualitative characterization定性表征;Quantum mechanics量子力学;Resistivity电阻率;Reflectivity反射率reverse bias反向偏置Reliability可靠saturation magnetization饱和磁化(强度);silicon substrate硅基片;Spin旋转;solar cell太阳能电池;stress–strain diagram应力应变曲线;structural materials结构材料;stress concentrations应力集中;storage device存储设备;specific heat capacity比热容;Superconductivity超导电性;Susceptibility磁化率,极化率;synthetic substances合成物质;Tetrahedron四面体;tensile stress拉(伸)应力;Tension张力;Thermocouple热电偶;Thermoelectric Phenomena热电现象;Thermal equilibrium热平衡;thermal conductivity热导率;thermal energy热能;thermal insulation,绝热层;transmission 透射;Translucent半透明;Transparent透明的;Transistor晶体管;valence band价电子带;vibrational modes振动模式;Wavelength波长 yield point屈服点 关 键 词: 专业英语 考试 济南 大学


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